What is Camera Module?

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What is a Camera module?

first cellphone using-camera module

The camera module, also known as CCM (compact Camera Module), has been widely used in video conferencing, Security systems and real-time monitoring as a video input device. With the development of Internet technology, the continuous improvement of network speed, coupled with the maturity of photographic imaging device technology and a large amount of use in the manufacture of cameras, has made its price drop to a level that ordinary people can bear. Now, CAMERA is widely used in mobile phones, PDAs and Tablet PCs, which also promotes further improvements in photographic imaging technology, such as 5 megapixels, 8 megapixels, 13 Megapixels, 24Megapixel….

first cellphone using-camera module

Not long ago, Apple released their new flag cellphones with a triple lens camera modules on the rear.

what is camera module
Triple Lens Camera Module – iPhone 11 pro

Classic of Compact Camera Module

  • Compact Camara Module
  • USB Camara Module
  • MIPI/FPC Camara Module

Camera Module Structure

The main components of the camera module are:

  • Lens
  • Infrared filter (IR Filter)
  • Image sensor (Sensor IC)
  • Digital Signal Processing (DSP)
  • Soft Board or PCB
Some of these Sensor ICs are integrated with DSP, some are not, and modules without integrated DSP require external DSP.
camera module structure
Camera Module Structure
After the external light passes through the Lens, it is filtered by the IR Filter and then irradiated onto the Sensor surface. The Sensor converts the light from the Lens into an electrical signal, and then converts it into a digital signal through internal A/D. If the Sensor does not have an integrated DSP, the signal will be transmitted to the baseband by DVP or MIPI interface. The data format at this time is RAW RGB.
 
what is camera module
How a Image sensor working
 

LENS

The lens structure of camera module is composed of several lenses, which are plastic lens (PLASTIC) and glass lens (GLASS). Generally, the lens structure used by CAMERA is: 1P. 2P, 1G1P, 1G3P, 2G2P, 4G, etc. The more lenses, the higher the cost. Generally speaking, The glass lens is more expensive than the plastic lens, but the imaging effect of the glass lens is better than that of the plastic lens. Previously, the camera equipped for Mobile Phone on the market was mainly composed of 1G3P (1 glass lens and 3 plastic lenses), in order to reduce costs. Nowaday, with the great development of technology, the Mobile phone camera is also more sophisticated, triple-lens camera or even quads The lens camera is starting to be used on mobile phones.
 

IR Filter

Eliminate unnecessary light projected onto the Sensor, preventing the Sensor from producing false colors/waves Grain to improve its effective resolution and color reproduction.
 

Sensor

Among the main components of the camera module, the most important is the image sensor, because the sensor is the most important for image quality.The Sensor converts the light transmitted from the lens into an electrical signal, which is then converted to a digital signal by an internal DA. Since each pixel of the Sensor can only sense R, B or G, each pixel is stored in a single color at this time, which we call RAW DATA data. To restore RAW DATA data for each pixel to three primary colors, an ISP is required to process it.
 

DSP (Digital Signal Processing)

 
The digital image signal parameters are optimized (RGB/YUV→JPEG) through a series of complex mathematical algorithm operations, and the processed signals are transmitted to the storage or display components.
 
DSP structure framework:
  • ISP (image signal processor)
  • JPEG encoder

Camera Module HOT Application

 
Application #1:
 
  1. ID card identification
  2. Picture capturing (to get drivers’ new picture)
  3. Catching driver’s face information from different angle
  4. Face recognition
  5. Fingerprint collection
Camera Module Application
Camera Module Application

Application #2:

  1. Floor mopping robot
  2. Security monitering System
  3. Bady care System
  4. Kiosk Equitment
  5. FOV Drone
Camera Module Application
Camera Module Application

Application #3:

document scanner, can capture A3, A4 paper and ID card

Camera Module Application
Camera Module Application
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